Mobility Partnerships are the new element of the EU`s comprehensive approach to immigration. These framework policies contain provisions on legal and illegal immigration. As part of this strategy, developed in 2008, two agreements have been adopted. Cape Verde and Moldova have committed to reintegrate their nationals and persons in transit through their territory. They must also participate in enhanced cooperation with the EU to prevent illegal immigration, including the exchange of information with EU and Member State authorities. In return, the EU should offer more migration opportunities and development assistance to nationals of States Parties. This readmission policy highlights the EU`s growing focus on immigration and its unilateralist approach. The EU threatens third countries to cut development aid if they do not meet their immigration commitments. Nevertheless, this policy can lead to serious human rights violations. The Schengen agreements have therefore led, to a certain extent, to a fortress Europe, which has allowed European citizens to move freely, but which has created an almost impassive wall around its borders. Cooperation also has consequences in the field of border management and immigration. The EU delegates part of the management of immigration to neighbouring counties through action plans and contracts (readmission agreements, association agreements, etc.).

[36] Neighbouring countries may be invited to participate in visa cooperation, management of migration flows, fight against trafficking in human beings, etc. [37] However, nationals of these countries must apply for a visa to travel within the EU, unless they are from Croatia or Israel. Several questions arise concerning FRONTEX`s respect for human rights. First, the possibility of coordinating joint chartered aircraft to organise the return of illegal immigrants falls under the Fourth Protocol to the ECHR, which stipulates that the collective expulsion of aliens is prohibited (Article 4). Although some operations have been allowed to save lives (an Icelandic ship rescued 93 migrants near Crete in 2011[32], FRONTEX operations are mainly aimed at preventing illegal immigrants from entering the Schengen area by preventing them from leaving their country. Immigrants are therefore all considered illegal, regardless of their potential status as refugees or asylum seekers.. . . .