Political polarization in America is at a record level and the conflict has propelled itself beyond differences of opinion on political issues. For the first time in more than 20 years, studies have shown that members of both parties have very unfavorable opinions about their opponents. It is polarization that is rooted in social identity, and it is growing. The election campaign and the election of Donald Trump revealed this fact of the American electorate, his successful rhetoric of “us against them”, which drew a powerful current of anger and resentment. “Political polarization in America is at a record high, and the conflict has moved beyond differences of opinion on political issues.” In 1952, the two parties were affiliated with different social groups. Even if Democrats and Republicans manage to agree on political outcomes, they tend to distrust each other and work for a party victory over everything else. While the polarizing effects of social divisions have simplified our choices and increased political engagement, they have not been a force that, in balance, is useful to American democracy. Alan I. Abramowitz has proven to be the leading voice in the view that our current political divide is not limited to a small group of elites and activists, but is an essential feature of the American social and cultural landscape.

The polarization of the political and media elites, he says, was born and continues because it accurately reflects the state of American society. Here it goes further: polarization is unique in the modern history of the United States. The division of today`s party reflects an unprecedented orientation of many divisions: racial and ethnic, religious, ideological and geographical. The partisan difference in the Liberals` share had doubled again, from 18 percentage points in 1992 (or 10 percentage points in 1972) to a 37-point difference between Democrats and Republicans in 2012. The difference between parties in the number of voters who identify as Conservatives increased from 34 percentage points in 1992 (20 percentage points in 1972) to almost 50 percentage points in 2012. Unzivile Accord buy here: Amazon Barnes and Noble Below I have listed not only the titles of the eight chapters, but also the subtitles of the first level, because they offer an excellent overview of the book. Naomi Aldermans The Power was one of Barack Obama`s favorite readings in 2017, although Mason swears that`s not why she chose it. The sci-fi novel takes place in a future world where women have developed the ability to draw electrical energy from their fingers.

More importantly, Mason says, “It explains how society changes once that happens, essentially when women are more physically powerful than men. It is so clear that physical strength infects everything, even things that are not a matter of physical strength. Isolation and competition, the two sources of the intergroup in the Robbers Cave experiment, are multiplying between the two parties. Over time, political preferences are relegated to the background of team loyalty, which will inevitably grow from these collections of increasingly homogeneous and isolated supporters.